(see also: pakan burung)
Living things in this world as well as many kinds of stuff , until distress to learn . To rejuvenate know and learn it was created one sisitem grouping ( classification of living things ) .
The classification system naturally changes from moment to moment . Starting from 2 sisitem kingdom , sisitem 3 kingdoms , then sisitem 4 kingdoms , kingdoms and sisitem sitem 5 6 kingdom .
1 . Concepts On The Origin of Life
There are some plans about the origin of life
a. The original life of the oceans
In biosafer there are various kinds of materials which contain a power that comes from the mountain slopes , valleys yan flowing water washed into the river that flows next to the sea .
At sea tekumpul shaped material substances kimai shaped elements carbon ( C ) , hydrogen ( H2 ) , oxygen ( O2 ) , and nitrogen ( N2 ) . Hence there is a bubble solution elements of the lifeboat and the reaction chemistry pd specific temperature can mengahasilakan life shaped protein substances . Zati it after it can be a natural evolution of living beings can be transformed . Living things are still very sederahana is a virus
b . The original life of the air
This theory has been proven by a Professor . Urey helped by aistensinya Stanly Miller . Torinya theory is intended percobanya Urey and Miller's experiment . Chemical compounds existing upper layer of the biosphere if terkana heat can evaporate . Accumulation in the atmosphere of steam , hydrogen , nitrogen , oxygen and carbon . At the time of the lightning trjadinya meruupakan natural electrical energy , resulting in earlier vapors may be associated with chemical reactions take place . The results of these reactions are shaped -protein substances . Substance tersubut pd Keadaa specific temperature can be transformed so selenjutnaya living matter evolved into living beings .
2 . The theory of the origin of life
a. The theory of abiogenesis ( spontaneous generation )
In the era of the 17th Aristotle mentions that it goes with life makhul mandadak for spontaneous manner ( abiogenesis or spontanae generation ) . This theory didukun by Leeunwenhook ( lover microscope ) . By way of coincidence leeuwenhook take water didalamya water was found living organisms . Because it can be concluded that such a creature lasts only come from inanimate objects .
b . The theory of biogenesis
This theory is Lazzaro Spallanzani characters , Franncisco redi , and Lousi Pasteur . This theory is the theory of abiogenesis menggugarakan success . Convey the biogenesis theory that living things bersal of other living creatures .
Semboyanya " omne vivum ex ovo , omne vivium ex vivo " which meens events dar eggs bersal living beings , sentient beings events come from living things that already exist .
At trial F. Redi memggunakan meat . In fact I ended up bottle ( meat cover tightly ) no microbes , Bottle II ( covered with gauze ) there is little microbes , Bottle III ( meat tidsk diitutup ) finally many microbes .
Louis Pasteur experimenting with broth placed pd swan -necked flask , percoabaannya same results with what the F. redi , which rejects the theory of abiogenesis .
3 . organisms Life
1 . cell theory
From getting a microscope by Antonie van Simpler Leeuwenhook (1623-1723) to the era pd - 16 , research in the field of biology , has grown rapidly namely :
a. Theorodon Schwan (1810-1882) mengemukkan that the cell is the smallest arrangement of animals .
b . Mathias Jacob Schleiden (1804-1881) states that the cell is the smallest arrangement of plants .
The second theory is known as the cell theory so pedoaman to penelitin modern biology . Not only Schwan and Scleiden , figure pengemmbangan instrumental in the biological sciences ,
2 . Cell parts
a. Plasma membrane and cell Diding
Plasma membrane is composed of two lipoprotein composition namely :
1 . The composition consists of a protein outside easily bypassed by chemical molecules
2 . Arrangement within comprised of fat ( lipids ) in the form of selective ( specify ) terhadal moleku - molukul chemicals and molecules that can dissolve only within lemat who can enter .
Benefits trsnsportasi plasma membrane regulate substances from cell to cell .
Diding cells are given in plant cells . Cell wall is the outer side of the cell and living systems is the result of protoplasm . Diding perfect cell wall is formed in cells when a cell divides , as well as natural cell after switching so Diding secondary thickening .
Diding cells contribute to :
1 . Making the protection of cells that are inside
2 . Some entry and exit paths along the water soluble substances .
3 . Members form cells and strengthen the cell .
4 . Vacuoles act in unison while maintaining cell turbidity
b . cytoplasm
Fluid bounded by a plasma membrane and are outside the cell nucleus . This takes place in the cytoplasm of living systems is absolute . In the cytoplasm there are cell organelles , including :
1 . endoplasmic reticulum
Which channel connecting the initi sek with cell nuclei
2 . ribosomes
Area as the course of the synthetic protein
3 . mitochondria
Area trjadinya rrespirasi cells , to generate energy .
4 . Golgi body
Contribute to waste spending tool or substances from the cell .
5 . lysosomes
Acting while killing germs , which attack cells ( means of defense )
c . cell nucleus
Present in the cytoplasmic membrane is limited by the core / core Diding . Didalamya there is nukleoplaasma fluid and core grains ( nukleous ) . Cell nuclei act as centers of all system settings that take place in the cell .
b . network
Ie, the set of cells that have the same form as well as benefits .
Pd animal tissue consisting of :
1 . epithelial tissue
Cavity or lining diverse role in all of the body and form the body's skin membugkus .
2 . connective tissue
Role binding and connecting between networks .
Ranka tissue / bone
Instrumental support , making protection of the body , and so the tool motion .
Mengederkan role of nutrients and oxygen -and metabolic waste mengakut tool to spending
Coordinating role and continue the stimulus ( stimulus )
Act in unison to give support fungdi bone tissue motion .
Network pd plant consists of :
1 . network empidermis
Contributed to a body surface of plant protection
2 . mesophyll tissue
Contribute to make food with photosynthesis system
3 . Network parenkrim ( equipped plastid )
Plastids are exposed to the sun as fotositesis area . Plastids are not terkana sunlight as food reserves .
4 . Vascular tissue ( xylem and flom -shaped )
As well as the role mengankut xylem water mineral salts from the root to the leaf phloem transport role of photosynthesis to all the body .
5 . meristem
Menghailkan contribute to the development of several new cell .
Body is a complex structure consisting of a set of network .
1 . Pd organs of animals
Differentiated into 2 .
A ) . external organs for example : hands feet , nose , mouth , ears and eyes .
B ) . Within organs , eg liver , kidneys intestines , heart, lungs nerves
2 . Pd plant organs
acts to absorb water and nutrients , strengthen the establishment of food reserves mentimpan rods , as well as vegetative perkembanganbiakan tool .
b . rod
act as leaf area growth , food reserve storage appliance , tool vegetative changes , transportation kedaun nutrients from the roots and results of assimilation of the leaves throughout the plant .
c . leaf
tempay role as photosynthesis , food storage areas , vegetative propagation tool ( pd specific plants ) , tools evaporation , and respiration .
d . interest
role as a tool forming sex cells .
e . fruit
plays produced seeds that contain the embryo or agencies as a tool for plant breeding .
d . organ systems
Namely diverse group of organs that work together to do tetentu benefits . Sisitem organ can form organisms ( people)
Parable of the organ systems . :
1 . Tersususan circulatory system of organs heart , blood vessels , and a virgin .
2 . Respiratory system is composed of organs of the nose, throat and lungs
e . Indvidu ( organism )
Formed of miraculous organ systems . Individual ( organism ) no bias alone , all interact to often linked .
Parable of the individual or organism , namely seeoker kambin , head tree ,
f . population
Is a group of individuals of one species is occupying a specific arael . Area of residence referred habitat . parable poopulasi . , the human population in Surakarta .
g . community
Is populasisemua species that occupy a habitat .
h . ecosystem (see also: pakan burung parkit)
Ecosystem is a system formed in suatum area , where the components of living things with their environment or the existing fabric of reciprocal equally change or as one unified whole .
i . biome
Biomes are common inhabitants of the life within the organization that won the climax of the location of the Earth 's surface , such as tundra ( moss desert life ) , savanna ( daisies life ) .